Fabi, I know that an Apple Photos library can only be created on an HFS+ or APFS formatted drive. However, because an Apple Photos library is saved in a proprietary, Mac-only package file format I don’t think you’re going to be able to work with that file structure from a Windows machine, even with MacDrive software.
By trying to work with proprietary Mac-specific apps and formats from a Windows machine you’re making this harder than it has to be. My suggestion would be to do everything on a Mac until you’ve extracted images files in subfolders. Once you have that copied to a new location, then you can work with them on a Windows computer with an ExFat drive or with MacDrive from a Mac-formatted drive.